Here is my baby niece Sarah. Her Mon is a doctor and her dad is a lawyer.
By the time Sarah goes to college, the jobs her parents do are going to look
In 2013, researchers at Oxford University did a study on the future of
work. They concluded that almost one in every two jobs have a high risk of being
automated by machines. Machine learning is the technology that's responsible for
most of this disruption. It's the most powerful branch of artificial
intelligence. It allows machines to learn from data and copy some of the things
that humans can do. My company, Kaggle, operates on the cutting edge of machine
learning. We bring together hundreds of thousands of experts to solve important
problems for industry and academia. This gives us a unique perspective on what
machines can do, what they can't do and what jobs they might automate or
Machine learning started making its way into industry in the early 90’s. It
started with relatively simple tasks. It started with things like assessing
credit risk from loan applications, sorting the mail by reading handwritten zip
codes. Over the past few years, we have made dramatic breakthroughs. Machine
learning is now capable of far, far more complex tasks. In 2012, Kaggle
challenged its community to build a program that could grade high-school essays.
The winning programs were able to match the grades given by human teachers.
Now, given the right data, machines are going to outperform humans at tasks
like this. A teacher might read 10,000 essays over a 40-year career. A machine
can read millions of essays within minutes. We have no chance of competing
against machines on frequent, high-volume tasks.
But there are things we can do that machines can't do. Where machines have
made very little progress is in tackling novel situations. Machines can't handle
things they haven't seen many times before. The fundamental limitations of
machine learning is that it needs to learn from large volumes of past data. But
humans don't. We have the ability to connect seemingly different threads to
solve problems we've never seen before.
Question 16: What did the researchers at Oxford University conclude?
Question 17: What do we learn about Kaggle company’s winning programs?
Question 18: What is the fundamental limitation of machine learning?
We’ve talked recently about the importance of sustainable energy. We've
also talked about the different theories on how that can be done. So far, our
discussions have all been theoretical. Now I have a practical question for you
all. Can you run a one hundred and forty thousand kilogram train on just the
steam generated by solar power? Well, one engineer, Tim councilman believes it's
And his home city of Sacramento, California should see the technologies
first test as part of the upgrading of its rail yard. Councilman, who is an
inventor and self-proclaimed steam visionary, is campaigning for a new steam
train that runs without any fire and could run on an existing ten kilometer
line, drawing tourists and perhaps offering city commuters a green alternative
to their cars. Councilman wants to build an array of solar magnifying mirrors at
one end of the line to collect and focus heat onto water filled tubes.
This would generate steam that could be used to fill tanks on a small steam
train without the use of fire. Supplying power to trains in this way would offer
the shortest distance from well to wheels, he says, with the least amount of
energy lost, according to harry valentine, a Canadian engineer who was
researching modern steam technology, a special tank measuring two by ten meters
could store over seven hundred and fifty kilowatt hours of energy as high
pressure steam enough to pull a two car train for an hour or so. Energy to drive
a steam locomotive can be stored in other materials besides water.
For example, a team at Tohoku University in japan has studied materials
that can store large amounts of heat. When he did, these materials turned from a
solid into a liquid, absorbing energy as they change phase. The liquid is
maintained above its melting point until steam is required, at which point the
liquid is allowed to turn back into a solid, releasing its stored energy.
Another team at Nagoya University in japan has tested calcium compound as an
energy storage material, heating this chemical compound drives off carbon
dioxide gas, leaving calcium oxide.
The gas can be stored under pressure in a tank to recover the energy. The
gas is bent back over the calcium oxide. In theory, says Valentine, this can
create a high enough temperature to generate superheated steam.
Question 19: What has the speaker previously talked about?
Question 20: What is Tim Councilman trying to do in Sacramento?
Question 21: What has a Japanese research team tried to do?
Today’s crisis in care for older people in England has two main causes.
First, people are living longer with a lot more complex needs. Second, they rely
on a system that has long been marked by a poor relation between national health
and social care services.
Current services originated in two key measures. They are the National
Health Service and the 1948 National Assistance Act. This required local
government to provide residential accommodation for older people and supervise
care homes run by independent organizations. They also provide home and
community services including meals, day centers and home helpers and other
subsidized services. The National Health Service was free and wholly publicly
provided. It delivered the best health care for all. No such vision guided
residential and community care though. The care was substantially provided by
voluntary services which work together with local authorities as they long had
with eligibility based on income. Today, life expectancy has risen from 66 for a
male at birth in 1948 to around 80 now. In addition, there is better overall
health and improved medical knowledge in care. This means an unprecedented
number of people are surviving longer in conditions requiring ex-birth support.
Families provide at least as much of care as they ever did. Even so, they can
rarely without subsidized support address serious personal needs. Care for older
people faced persistent criticism as these trends became apparent. From the
early nineteen sixties, local authorities were required to plan health and
welfare services. The aim was to enable older people to remain in their own
homes for as long as possible. But this increased concern about the lack of
coordination between free health and paid for social care. Through the nineteen
seventies, a number of measures sought to improve matters.
However, at a time of financial crisis, funding diminished and little
changed. In the 1980s, the government cut spending. Meanwhile, preference for
private over public services made management even more difficult.
Simultaneously, the number of sick, older people grew. Governments emphasized
the need to improve services. They did so though, while doing little to stop the
erosion of available aid.
Services were irregular cross authorities unless you were prepared to pay.
They were increasingly difficult to obtain for any but the most severely
disabled. Why has sixty years of criticism produce so little change?
Discrimination against older people has a long history. Additionally, those
affected by inadequate health and social care are too vulnerable to launch the
protests that have addressed other forms of discrimination.
22. What is one cause of the current crisis in care for the elderly in
23. What does the speaker say about residential and community care?
24. What made management of care toward elderly more difficult in the
25. What does the speaker say about older people in England?