高二英语必修五期末考知识点总结

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2021-03-15

英语学习,背诵单词是一个持久的过程,同学们可以利用自己的业余时间背诵和记忆单词,比如说是等车的时间,或是早晨刷牙的时间。下面是小编为大家整理的有关高二英语必修五知识点总结,希望对你们有帮助!

高二英语必修五期末考知识点总结插图

高二英语必修五语法知识点

【一般过去时】

1. 一般过去时的定义

一般过去时表示过去某一时候或某一段时间所发生了的事情或存在的状态。常与过去时间yesterday, this morning, just now, a moment ago, in May, last night / year / week, once upon a time, the other day, before …, when – clause, in the past连用。如:

What did you do yesterday? 昨天你干了什么?

I met Lin Tao this morning. 今天上午我会到了林涛。

I was there a moment ago. 刚才我在那儿。

2. 一般过去时的应用

(1) 表示过去某时所发生的动作或存在的状态。如:

Liu Ying was in America last year. 刘英去年在美国。

Jim rang you just now. 吉姆刚才给你打了电话。

(2) 表示过去经常或反复发生的动作。常接时间副词often, usually, always, sometimes, every day / week, etc. 如:

We often went out for a walk after supper. 我们过去常在晚饭后散步。

We usually played together. 我们通常一起玩。

3. 一般过去时对谓语动词的要求

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一般过去时的谓语动词要用动词的过去式。动词过去式的构成分规则变化和不规则变化两种形式,不规则变化通常需要逐个记忆,规则变化则遵循以下原则:

(1) 一般在动词后加-ed。如:play—played, offer—offered, weigh—weighed, destroy— destroyed, sign—signed.

(2) 在以字母e结尾的动词后,只加-d。如:like—liked, provide—provided, hate — hated, date—dated。

(3) 在以“辅音字母+y”结尾的动词后,则改y为i,再加—ed。如:supply—supplied, fly—flied, study— studied.

(4) 在以单短元音的重读闭音节结尾且,末尾只有一个辅音字母的动词后,双写最后一个辅音字母,再加-ed。如:plan—planned, refer—referred, regret—regretted, ban—banned.

4. 特别说明

有些动词的过去时,如:expect, hope, intend, plan, wanted 等一般过去时,后接不定式的完成时;或它们的过去完成时接不定式的一般式,都可表示过去未曾实现的意图、打算或希望。如:

I hoped to have been invited to his wedding party. —I had hoped to be invited to his wedding ceremony. 我本希望他来邀请我参加他的婚礼。

I intended to have joined their games. —I had intended to join their games. 我本打算参加他们的比赛。

【现在完成进行时】

1. 现在完成进行时的定义

现在完成进行时表示某动作从过去某个时间开始,一直延续到现在,并且还有可能持续下去。如:

We have been waiting for him for two hours. 我们等他等了两个小时。

2. 现在完成进行时的结构

现在完成进行时由“have /has been + 现在分词”构成。

3. 现在完成进行时的应用

现在完成进行时所用的时间状语:this month / week / year, these days, recently / lately, in the past few + 时间段, since +时间点, for + 时间段。如:

They have been building the bridge for two month. 两个月来他们一直在修桥。

They have been planting trees this month. 这个月来他们一直在植树。

4. 现在完成进行时与现在完成时的区别

(1) 现在完成时强调动作的完成,而现在完成进行时强调动作的延续,因此,表示动作的完成,只能用现在完成时,而不能用现在完成进行时。如:

He has changed his idea. 他改变了想法。

(2) 在表示动作的延续时,虽然既可用现在完成时,也可用现在完成进行时,但现在完成进行时强调动作的进行。因此在需要明确表示动作还要持续下去时,应用现在完成进行时。如:

We have been studying here for two years. 我们在这儿已经学习了两年了。

(3) 有些延续性动词(如 keep, learn, live, stay, study, work等),用于现在完成时或现在完成进行时的区别不大。如:

I have lived here for many years.=I have been living here for many years. 我在这儿住了多年了。

【动词语法】

1 系动词

系动词亦称联系动词(Link Verb),作为系动词,它本身有词义,但不能单独用作谓语,后边必须跟表语(亦称补语),构成系表结构说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。说明:有些系动词又是实义动词,该动词表达实义时,有词义,可单独作谓语。例如:

He fell ill yesterday.  他昨天病了。(fell是系动词,后跟补足语,说明主语情况。)

He fell off the ladder.  他从梯子上摔下来。fell是实义动词,单独作谓语。

1)状态系动词

用来表示主语状态,只有be一词。例如:

He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。(is与补足语一起说明主语的身份。)

2)持续系动词

用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand。例如:

He always kept silent at meeting.  他开会时总保持沉默。

This matter rests a mystery.  此事仍是一个谜。

3)表像系动词

用来表示"看起来像"这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look。例如:

He looks tired.  他看起来很累。

He seems (to be) very sad.  他看起来很伤心。

4)感官系动词

感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste。 例如:

This kind of cloth feels very soft.  这种布手感很软。

This flower smells very sweet. 这朵花闻起来很香。

5)变化系动词

这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,变化系动词主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run。例如:

He became mad after that.  自那之后,他疯了。

She grew rich within a short time.  她没多长时间就富了。(北京安通学校提供)

6)终止系动词

表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove, turn out, 表达"证实","变成"之意。例如:

The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。

The search proved difficult. 搜查证实很难。

His plan turned out a success.  他的计划终于成功了。(turn out表终止性结果)

2 助动词

1)协助主要动词构成谓语动词的词叫助动词。被协助的动词称作主要动词。助动词自身没有词义,不可单独使用。例如:

He doesn′t like English. 他不喜欢英语。

(doesn′t是助动词,无词义;like是主要动词,有词义)

2) 助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来:

a. 表示时态。例如:

He is singing. 他在唱歌。(北京安通学校提供)

He has got married. 他已结婚。

b. 表示语态。例如:

He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。

c. 构成疑问句。例如:

Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗?

Did you study English before you came here? 你来这儿之前学过英语吗?

d. 与否定副词not合用,构成否定句。例如:

I don′t like him.  我不喜欢他。

e. 加强语气。例如:

Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。

He did know that.  他的确知道那件事。

3) 最常用的助动词有:be, have, do, shall, will, should, would等。

3 助动词be的用法

1) be +现在分词,构成进行时态。例如:

They are having a meeting. 他们正在开会。

English is becoming more and more important. 英语现在越来越重要。(北京安通学校提供)

2) be + 过去分词,构成被动语态。例如:

The window was broken by Tom.. 窗户是汤姆打碎的。

高二英语必修五unit5知识点归纳

【词语】

1. first aid 的意思是“急救”,例如:first aid to the injured 给予伤员的急救。

短语联想

give/offer aid 援助 come to sb's aid 帮助某人

teaching aids 教具 medical aid 医疗救护

with the aid of 借助于

get injured 受伤,在现代英语中大量地出现了由“get + 及物动词不达意的过去分词”构成的被动语态,这叫 get - 型被动语态。又如:

The computer got (was)damaged when we were moving.

My bike is getting (is being)repaired row.

2. Protect 动词,“保护、维护”,用于句式“protect + 名词 + against/from + 名词”。

e.g. He is wearing sunglasses to protect his eyes from the strong sunlight.

【短语联想】

? Keep... from... 不让/避免

? stop... (from) ... 阻止

? prevent...(from) ... 妨碍/防止

?disable... from... 使……失去(能力/资格)

?save... from... 挽救、拯救

3.depend on 取决于。

e.g. The amount you pay depends on where you live.词义拓展

depend on 依靠,依赖:His family depends on him. 他的一家人全靠他养活。

依赖,信任:We are depending on you to finish the job by Friday.

4. squeeze 动词,意思是“榨取”、“挤出”,例如:squeeze an orange 榨橘子

squeeze + 名词 + out(of/from) + 名词,

e.g. Those blackmailers intended to squeeze more money out of him.

5. hurt 既可作及物动词,作“伤害”、“使受伤”解,也可作不及物动词,作“疼痛”、“感到疼痛”解。既可表达身体的受伤,也可以表达情感的伤害。例如:

e.g. The little boy has fallen off a ladder and hurt himself.

The driver hurt himself in the accident. 司机在事故中受了伤。

6. unless 除非……;如果不……。如:

7. icy adj. 冰凉的

-y 是个形容词后缀。如:

windy 有风的 hilly 多小山的 sleepy 困倦的

greeny 略呈绿色 spicy 辛辣的 woody 树木茂密的

thirsty 饥渴的 dirty 脏的 snowy 下雪的

8. in place 放在适当的地方。如:

e.g. The librarian put the returned books in place. 图书管理员把还回的图书放到原处。

Yon'd better put things back in place.Otherwise, it will be difficult to find things.

9. sense n. 感觉

?sense of touch 触觉 sense of sight 视觉

? sense of hearing 听觉 sense of smell 嗅觉

? sense of humour 幽默感 sense of beauty 美感

?ense of hunger 饥饿感 the sixth sense 第六感

10. variety n. 多样, 种类,

★ a variety of… 各种各样……

【词语联想】

various a. 不同的, 各种的, 多方面的, 许多的

e.g. Everyone arrived late at the party for various reasons.

【重点句型】

1. Remove clothing using scissors if necessary unless it is stuck to the burn.

除非衣服粘贴在烧伤面上,否则都要把衣服脱掉。如果需要的话,可以使用剪刀。

unless是连词,意为“如果不,除非”。在真实条件句中,unless引导的肯定条件状语从句,可以和if...not...引导的否定状语从句互换。

Unless you change your mind,I won,t be able to help you.

=If you don?t change your mind,I won ’t be able to help you.

除非你改变想法,否则我不能帮助你。

I want you to keep working unless I tell you to stop.

=I want you to keep working if I don’t tell you to stop.

如果我没说让你停,你就得继续干。

注意:unless 不可用于假想的事情,因此当if...not引导非真实条件状语从句时,一般不可改用unless。

例题:单项填空

①All the dishes in this menu, ______ otherwise stated, will serve two to three people.

A. As B. if C. though D. unless

②Don’t promise anything ______ you are one hundred percent sure.

A. Whether B. after C. how D. unless

解析: ①选D。考查状语从句的引导词。句意为:在这份菜单上的所有菜,除非另外说明,会给两到三个人食用。

②选D。句意为:除非你有完全的把握,否则不要做出承诺。unless除非。

2. John was studying in his room when he heard screaming.

约翰正在房里学习,突然听到一声尖叫。

此句型中when作并列连词,相当于and then,意为“正当……时,突然”。

常用结构:

be doing...when... 正在做……突然……

had done...when... 刚做了……突然……

be about to do...when... 刚要做……突然……

be on the point of doing sth. when... 刚要做……突然……

例题:单项填空

①She had just finished her homework _____ her mother asked her to practice playing the piano yesterday.

A. When B. while C. after D. since

②We were swimming in the lake ______ suddenly the storm started.

A. When B. while C. until D. before

③I ______ along the street looking for a place to park when the accident .

A. went; was occurring B. went; occurred

C. was going; occurred D. was going; had occurred

解析: ①选A。由句意可知此处when用作并列连词,意为“这时”。②选A。when作连词,表示“正在这时”。句意为:我们正在湖中游泳,突然暴风雨来了。③选C。主句要用过去进行时,表示当时正在路上走着;when引导的从句多用一般过去时。

【重点短语】

1. fall ill 生病

Hearing the bad news, he fell ill. 听到坏消息后,他病了。

联想拓展

fall behind 落后

fall sick 生病

fall asleep 入睡

fall down 掉下;倒塌

fall in love with ... 爱上……

fall off 脱落;减少;从……上掉下

fall into the habit of ... 养成……的习惯

fall over 跌倒;翻倒;落到……上

fall silent 沉默

2. in place

在适当的位置;适当

I like everything to be in place.

我喜欢所有的东西都放在原来的地方。

With everything in place, she started the slide show.

一切就绪,她开始放幻灯片。

联想拓展

be in/out of order 有条理/无条理;坏了

be in/out of control 正常/失控

be in/out of danger 有危险/脱离危险

in place of...=take the place of... 代替;取代

give place to 被……取代;让位于……

out of place 不在适当的位置; 不合适

3. make a difference

有很大差别;有很大不同;有很大的关系/影响

Whether he could get the support from his parents made a great difference to the plan.

他是否能得到父母的支持对这个计划的影响很大。

Does it any difference whether he?ll attend the meeting?

他出不出席会议有什么区别吗?

联想拓展

make a difference between ...and ... 区别对待……

make some difference to对…… 有些关系

make no difference to 对……没有关系

make all the difference 关系重大;大不相同