高二英语必修五会考知识点整理

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2021-03-15

单词乃是英语学习之中的基础,只有认识了大量的单词,同学们才能够学好英语,因此同学们在学习的时候一定要能够背诵单词。下面是小编为大家整理的有关高二英语必修五会考知识点整理,希望对你们有帮助!

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高二英语必修五会考知识点整理1

一、过去分词

过去分词兼有动词、副词和形容词的特征,可以带宾语或受状语修饰。过去分词和宾语或状语一起构成过去分词短语。它在句中可以作定语、表语、宾语补足语或状语。这节课讲解作定语、表语的用法。

1. 作定语

作定语的过去分词如果是单词,一般放在被修饰词的前面;过去分词短语作定语,一般放在被修饰词的后面。例如:

There are many fallen leaves on the ground.

This is a book written by a worker.

2. 作表语

过去分词作表语,多表示主语所处的状态。

I was pleased at the news.

The door remained locked.

过去分词作表语,相当于形容词,常见的有:delighted, disappointed, astonished, interested,
satisfied, surprised, tired, worried, excited, married 等。

过去分词作表语时,应注意与被动结构的区别。系表结构说明主语的状态或具有的性质、特点;被动结构强调谓语动作。

The small village is surrounded by trees.(状态)

The small village was soon surrounded by enemy soldiers.(动作)

I'm interested in chess.(状态)

3. 过去分词做状语

①表时间,相当于一个时间状语从句,有时过去分词前可加连词 when 或 while 来强调时间概念。

Seen from the top of the hill, the city looked like a big garden.

Accepted by the Party, he decided to devote his life to the cause of the
Party.

②表原因,相当于一个原因状语从句。

Exhausted, the children fell asleep at once.

Encouraged by the speech, the young people made up their minds to take up
the struggle.

③表条件,相当于一个条件状语从句,有时过去分词前可用 if 等词

Heated, water changes into steam.

Given another chance, he will do better.

④表让步,相当于一个though/although引导的让步状语从句。

Laughed at by many people, he continued his study.

⑤表伴随,说明动作发生的背景或情况。

Surrounded by a group of pupils, the old teacher walked into the
classroom.

The trainer appeared, followed by five little dogs.

倒装句:

一、here, there, now, then, thus 等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用 be, come, go, lie, run。

There goes the bell. 铃声响了。

Then came the chairman. _来了。

Here is your letter. 你的信。

二、否定词置于句首,句子应进行倒装。 neither 放句首

Tod can't swim, neither can I. 托德不会游泳,我也不会。

用于 never, hardly, seldom, scarcely, barely, little, often, at no time, not
only, not once, many a time 等词开头的句子。

Never shall I go there again. 我再也不去那了。

Little did he know who the woman was.他基本上不知道那女人是谁。

Seldom was he late for class.他很少上学迟到。

用于 no sooner ... than ..., hardly... when... 和 not until... 的句型中

Hardly had I reached the station when the train left. 我刚到车站,火车就离开了。

No sooner had she gone out than the phone rang. 她刚离开,电话就响了。

Not until the teacher came did he finish his homework. 直到老师来,他才完成作业。

三、用于 only 放句首,修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句的句子。

Only in this way can you master English well. 只有这种方法,你才能学好英语。

Only that time did he do his homework. 直到哪个时间,他才做作业。

Only when he told me did I realize what trouble I was in.

省略句:

一、省略的目的

省略多见于非正式文体,尤其在对话中,省略是一种普遍的现象。英语中的省略一般说来有三个目的:

1.避免重复,减少累赘。省略的主要目的是避免重复,去掉不必要的累赘和繁琐。

Mike said that he would come to school to see me the next day, but he
didn't come to school to see me the next day.

Mike said that he would come to school to see me the next day, but he
didn't.

(省掉最后九个词,句子简洁了许多)

2.连接紧密,结构紧凑 省略也是使上下文紧密连接的一种修辞手段。

John was the winner in 1994 and Bob in 1998.(Bob 后省略了 was the
winner,句子结构显得比较紧凑)

3.强调重点,突出信息 省略的另一作用是突出新的信息

Truth speaks too low, hypocrisy too loud.后一分句省略谓语 speaks,突出了 too loud)

二、句子成分的省略

为了避免重复,或者为了使某一内容引人注目,可以省略某些句子成分而保持句子原意不变。

1.省略主语

Beg your pardon.请你原谅。(= I beg your pardon.))

Serves you right. 你活该(= It serves you right.)

2.省略谓语

Anything the matter? 要紧吗?(= Is anything the matter?)

The river was deep and the ice thin. 河很深,冰很薄。

(= The river was deep and the ice was thin.)

3.省略表语

Are you ready? Yes,I am.(am 后面省略了表语 ready)

4.省略宾语

We have to analyze and solve problems. (analyze 后省略了宾语 problems)

Let's do the dishes. I'll wash and you'll dry.(wash 和 dry 后面省略了宾语
dishes)

5.省略定语

He spent part of the money, and the rest he saved.(the rest 后面省略了定语 of the
money)

6.省略状语

(Even)The wisest man cannot know everything.

省略在句子中的应用

在一个句子中,省略可分为依赖上下文省略和不依赖上下文省略两种。前者省略的部分可在句子中找到,但后者可能找不到。

1.简单句中的省略

依赖上下文的省略在对话中最为常用。

Like more beer?(= Would you like more beer?)

—World you mind if I used your telephone?

—Not at all. 一点也不。

(= I do not mind at all.)

—Will he pass this examination?

Probably. 大概会的。(= He will probably pass the examination.)

不依赖于上下文的省略。

All aboard! 请上船(= All go aboard.省略谓语)

Haven't seen you for ages!(省略主语 I)

What about having a game of chess?

Sounds like a good idea.

2.并列句中的省略

(=It sounds like a good idea. 省略主语)

Everybody appears well prepared.

(= Everybady appears to be well prepared. 省略不定式 to be)

并列句中如果前后分句有相同的部分,常常可以省略掉,以避免重复。通常被省略的可以是主语、谓语、宾语或其他万分,或句子万分的一部分。

省略出现在后一分句

John likes collecting stamps but (John) hates listening to music.(省略主语)

省略出现在前一分句

We can (win tomorrow's match), and certainly will,win tomorrow's match.

我们能够,而且一定会在明天的比赛中获胜。(前一分句省略谓语 + 宾语)

前后两个分句都出现省略

They can (pay the full fee ) and (they)should pay the full fee.

复合句中的省略

在主从复合句中,活力的现象是很普遍的。

省略主句的句首部分。(I'm)Sorry I couldn't go.

省略整个主句或主句的一部分(回答问题时常用)。

(It is a)Pity he's failed.

If he says he'll come, he will(come).

3.在一些状语从句中,如果谓语动词是 be,主语又和主句的主语一致,或者主语是 it,常常可以把从句中的主语和 be 省略掉。

以 when, while, once, until 等连词引导的时间状语从句。

When (you are) in Rome do as Rome does.入国问禁,入乡随俗。

4.在比较从句中通常把和主句重复的部分省掉。

省略谓语的全部

James enjoys the theeartre more than Susun.

Tom has as many books as Jack.

省略主语和谓语的一部分

Brown speaks French as fluently as English. (as 后省略了 he speaks)省略表语部分

Mrs White is not so young as she looks.(looks 后省略了 young)

省略主语和谓语的大部分,保留状语

He is working harder than before.(than 后省略了 he worked hard)

省略主语

He drank a little more than was good for him.(than 后省略了 it)省略宾语

You spent more money than I had expected.(expected 后省略了that you should
spend)

省略从句的全部

You are getting slimmer. simmer 后省略了than you were before)

主句和从句中可同时省略一些成分。

The sooner (this is done), the better(it will be).

高二英语必修五会考知识点整理2

1. consist of = be made up of 由……组成 (没有进行时)

e.g. The UK consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

=Great Britain and Northern Ireland make up the UK.

2. 区别:

? separate ... from (把联合在一起或靠近的人或物分离出来)

? divide...into 把…分开 (把整体分为若干部分)

e.g. The teacher divided the class into two groups.

The Taiwan Strait separates Taiwan from Fujian.

3. debate about sth.

e.g. They debate about the proposal for three days.

debate /argue/ quarrel

4. clarify: vt./vi. (cause sth. to )become clear or easier to understand
澄清;阐明;清楚;明了

e.g. I hope what I say will clarify the situation.

Can you clarify the question?

5. be linked to = be connected to /be joined to 连接

【习惯用语】★ link A to B 将A和B连接起来

6. refer to

1)提及,指的是……

e.g. When he said “some students”, do you think he was referring to us?

2) 参考;查阅;询问

e.g. If you don't understand a word you may refer to your dictionaries.

Please refer to the last page of the book for answers.

3) 关系到;关乎

e.g. What I have to say refers to all of you.

This rule refers to everyone.

reference: n. 参考 e.g. reference books 参考书

7. to one's surprise (prep)

“to one's + 名词” 表 “令某人……”

常见的名词有 “delight, disappointment, enjoyment, astonishment 等

e.g. I discovered, to my horror, that the goods were entirely unfit for
sale.

To John's great relief they reached the house at last.

8. ... found themselves united peacefully

“find +宾语+宾补( adj; adv; v-ing; pp; 介词短语;不定式)”

e.g. A cook will be immediately fired if he is found smoking in the
kitchen.

You'll find him easy to get along with.

They found themselves trapped by the bush fire.

When I woke up, I found myself in hospital.

I called on him yesterday, but I found him out.

9. get sth done =have sth done 使某事被做…….

e.g. I'll just get these dishes washed and then I'll come.

get + n. + to do

get + n. + doing

You'll get her to agree.

I'll get the car going.

get done: 用于意想不到、突然或偶然发生,意为“被…….”

e.g. Be careful when you cross this very busy street.

10. break away (from sb / sth) 脱离;破除…

e.g. It is not easy for him to break away from bad habits.

The man broke away from his guards.

break down (会谈)破裂,失败;(汽车等)出故障;(人的健康状况)变得恶劣;(情感)失控

e.g. His car broke down on the way to work this morning.

His health broke down under the pressure of work.

He broke down and wept when he heard the news.

Talks between the two countries have completely broken down.

? break in 闯入;打岔

? break off 中断,折断

? break into 闯入

? break out 爆发;发生

? break up 驱散;分散,拆散

11. as well as 不仅…而且;既…又…

e.g. He is a teacher as well as a writer.

The children as well as their father were seen playing football in the
street.

12. convenience: n.方便;便利(convenient: adj. )

e.g. We bought this house for its convenience.

13. attraction: (attract: v.)

1). 吸引;引力(不可数 n.) e.g. attraction of gravitation 重力

2). 吸引人的东西;喜闻乐见的东西;精彩节目(可数 n.)

He can't resist the attraction of the sea on a hot day.

A big city offers many and varied attractions.

What are the principle attractions this evening?

14. influence

1) v. 对…产生影响 e.g. What influence you to choose a career in teaching?

2)可数n. 产生影响的人或事 e.g. He is one of the good influences in the school.

3) (不可数n.) 影响 e.g. A teacher has great influence over his pupils.