2021年高考英语重点语法梳理总结

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2021-03-15

想要学好英语首先先你要端正心态,不要急躁,平静的做你自己的事,这样才能静下心来学习。下面是小编为大家整理的有关高考英语重点语法总结,希望对你们有帮助!

2021年高考英语重点语法梳理总结插图

1高考英语重点语法总结:直接引语和间接引语

(一)直接引述别人的原话,叫做直接引语;用自己话转述别人的话,叫做间接引语。间接引语一般构成宾语从句。直接引

语必须放在引号内,间接引语则不用引号。直接引语改为间接引语时,除将引语部分变成宾语从句外,还必须对直接引语中的人

称、时态、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等进行改变。

1.时态的变化:直接引语变为间接引语时,通常受转述动词

said,asked等的影响而使用过去化的时态,即把原来的时态向过

去推,也就是一般现在时变为一般过去时,现在进行时变为过去进行时,等等。例如:

Tom said to me,“My brother is doing his homework.”

→Tom said to me that his brother was doing his homework.

2.人称代词、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等等的变化:

根据意义进行相应的变化,例如:

She asked Jack,“Where have you been?”

→She asked Jack where he had been.

He said,“These books are mine.”

→He said that those books were his.

(二)直接引语改为间接引语时,都使用陈述语序,但是因为原句的句式不同,所以变成间接引语时所用的连词会有所不同

。直接引语如果是一般疑问句,用连接词whether或if;如果是特殊疑问句,则用疑问词引导间接引语。转述的动词一般用asked,

可以在其后加上一个间接宾语me,him,her,us等。如:

She said,“Is your father at home?”

→She asked me if/whether my father was at home.

“What do you do every Sunday?”My friend asked me.

→My friend asked me what I did every Sunday.

直接引语如果是祈使句,改为间接引语时,要将祈使句的动词原形变为带to的不定式,并在不定式的前面根据原句的语气(

即请求或命令)加上ask,tell,order等动词,如果祈使句为否定式,则在不定式前加not。其句型为:ask/tell/order
someone

(not)to do something.例如:

She said to us,“Please sit down.”

→She asked us to sit down.

He said to him,“Go away!”

→He ordered him to go away.

He said,“Don’t make so much noise,boys.”

→He told the boys not to make so much noise.

2高考英语重点语法总结:各种时态的被动语态被动语态概述

被动语态的概念:它是动词的一种形式,表示主语与谓语之间的执行或被执行关系。主动语态表示主语是谓语动作的执行者,例如:They saw the
little boy crying by the river.被动语态表示主语是谓语动作的承受者,例如:The little boy was seen
crying by the river.

被动语态的构成

被动语态的形式是由“助动词be+动词的过去分词”构成。助动词be随着主语的人称、数、时态等的不同而变化。几种常见时态的被动语态形式如下:

1.一般现在时am/is/are+过去分词

例如:Rice is planted in the south of China.

2.一般过去时was/were+过去分词

例如:These trees were planted the year before last.

3.一般将来时will/shall+be+过去分词

例如:A sports meeting will be held next week in our school.

4.现在进行时am/is/are+being+过去分词

例如:Your radio is being repaired now.

5.过去进行时was/were+being+过去分词

When he got there,the problem was being discussed.

6.现在完成时have/has+been+过去分词

His work has been finished.

Has his work been finished? Yes,it has./No,it hasn’t.

7.过去完成时had+been+过去分词

注意:1.除了be之外的其它系动词如get,stay等也可以和过

去分词构成被动语态。例如:Their questions haven’t got answered.

2.含有情态动词的谓语变成被动语态使用“情态动词+be+过去分词”结构。例如:

More attention should be paid to the old in this country.

This work can’t be done until Mr.Black comes.

3.含有“be going to”,“be to”等结构的谓语,其被动语态分别用“be going to+be+过去分词”和“be
to+be+过去分词”。例如:The problem is going to be discussed at the next meeting.

All these books are to be taken to the library.

4.被动语态与系表结构的区别:“连系动词+用作表语的过去分词”构成的系表结构,与被动语态的形式完全一样,所以应注

意它们的区别。被动语态中的过去分词是动词,多强调动作;系表结构中的过去分词相当于形容词,多强调状态。前者通常可用by
引出动作的执行者,而后者则不可以。例如:

The map was changed by someone.(被动结构)

That custom remained unchanged for many centuries.(系表结构)

系表结构中的过去分词通常可被very修饰,被动语态中的过去分词往往要用much修饰。

例如:He was very excited.(系表结构)

He was much excited by her words.(被动结构)

5.主动形式表被动意义。有些动词的主动形式有被动意味,如
open,read,sell,shut,wash,wear,write等。此时句子的主语一般是物。

例如:These books sell well.这些书很畅销。

The door won’t shut.这门关不上。

The clothes wash well.这些衣服很好洗。