1. by + doing 通过……方式 如：by studying with a group
如：I live by the river. I have to go back by ten o’clock.
The thief entered the room by the window. The student went to park by
2. talk about 谈论，议论，讨论
如：The students often talk about movie after class. 学生们常常在课后讨论电影。
talk to sb. === talk with sb. 与某人说话
①What/ how about +doing sth.?
如：What/ How about going shopping?
②Why don’t you + do sth.? 如：Why don’t you go shopping?
③Why not + do sth. ? 如：Why not go shopping?
④Let’s + do sth. 如： Let’s go shopping
⑤Shall we/ I + do sth.? 如：Shall we/ I go shopping?
4. a lot 许多 常用于句末 如：I eat a lot. 我吃了许多。
5. too…to 太…而不能 常用的句型 too+adj./adv. + to do sth.
如：I’m too tired to say anything. 我太累了，什么都不想说。
6. aloud, loud与loudly的用法
形式。如: He read the story aloud to his son.
She told us to speak a little louder. 她让我们说大声一点。
含有令人讨厌或打扰别人的意思,可位于动词之前或之后。如: He does not talk loudly or laugh loudly in
1. used to do sth. 过去常常做某事
否定形式： didn’t use to do sth. / used not to do sth.
如：He used to play football after school. 放学后他过去常常踢足球。
Did he use to play football? Yes, I did. No, I didn’t.
He didn’t use to smoke. 他过去不吸烟。
①肯定陈述句+否定提问 如：Lily is a student, isn’t she?
Lily will go to China, won’t she?
She doesn’t come from China, does she?
You haven’t finished homework, have you?
③提问部分用代词而不用名词 Lily is a student, isn’t she?
④陈述句中含有否定意义的词，如：little, few, never, nothing, hardly等。其反意疑问句用肯定式。 如：
He knows little English, does he? 他一点也不懂英语，不是吗?
They hardly understood it, did they?他们几乎不明白，不是吗?
3. play the piano 弹钢琴
4. ①be interested in sth. 对…感兴趣
②be interested in doing sth. 对做…感兴趣
如：He is interested in math, but he isn’t interested in speaking
5. interested adj. 感兴趣的，指人对某事物感兴趣，往往主语是人
6. still 仍然，还
用在be 动词的后面 如：I’m still a student.
用在行为动词的前面 如：I still love him.
7. the dark 天黑，晚上，黑暗
8. 害怕… be terrified of sth. 如：I am terrified of the dog.
be terrified of doing sth. 如：I am terrified of speaking.
1. allow sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事(主动语态)如：
Mother allows me to watch TV every night. 妈妈允许我每晚看电视。
be allowed to do sth. 被允许做某事(被动语态)如：
LiLy is allowed to go to Qinzhou. 莉莉被允许去钦州。
2. get their ears pierced 穿耳洞
让/使(别人)做某事 get sth. done(过去分词)
have sth. done 如：
I get my car made. == I have my car made. 我让别人修好我的车
3. enough 足够
形容词+enough 如：beautiful enough 足够漂亮
enough+名词 如：enough food 足够食物
enough to 足够…去做… 如：
I have enough money to go to Beijing. 我有足够的钱去北京。
She is old enough to go to school.她够大去读书了。
4. stop doing sth. 停止做某事 Please stop speaking.请停止说话。
stop to do sth. 停止下来去做某事 Please stop to speak.
5. 看起来好像…sb. seem to do sth. He seems to feel very sad.
it seems that +从句It seems that he feels very sad. 他看起来好像很伤心。
6. 系动词不能独立作谓语，要和表语一起构成谓语。常用的连系动词有：look, feel, be, become, get, turn, smell,
taste, stay(保持), kept等。连系动词除be 和become 等少数词可接名词作表语外，一般都是接形容词。 如：
They are very happy. He became a doctor two years ago.
She felt very tired.