1. He studies by asking the teacher for help
by 以 … 方式，靠 + n / doing I went to school by bus /train /subway / bike /
2. the best way to do sth 做某事的方法
3. Joining the English club was the best way to improve our English.
动名词作主语 + V 三单
4. have trouble / problem / difficult / a hard time + doing sth 做某事很困难
5. laugh at sb. 嘲笑某人
6. last ( 持续 ) + 一段时间 The rain lasted for 6 hours yesterday.
7. regard …..as …… = consider….as…..= treat …… as……. 把 ….. 当成 ……
8. complain to sb about doing sth 抱怨某人做某事
9. except / besides
except 除 … 以外 …. All the students went to the zoo except me
besides 除 …. 以外 (包括在内) I have few friends besides you.
10. as soon as…. 一 …. 就 …… (条件状语从句， 主将从现) I’ll call you as soon as I get
11. if 引导宾语从句时 “ 是否 ” if 引导条件状语从句 “ 假如，如果 ” ，主句为将来时，从句用一般现在时。
I don’t know if it will rain ， if it rains ， I won’t go out.
1. 1 ) used to do sth 过去常常做某事 He used to do homework until 10 pm.
2 ) be used to doing sth 习惯于做某事 I’m used to getting up early. She is used
to living alone.
3 ) be used to do sth = be used for doing sth 被用于做某事 Knife is used to cut
things = Knife is used for cutting things.
2. afford 买得起，负担得起( … 的费用) I can’t afford a new car. afford to do sth
3. get in trouble with 与 …. 发生纠纷 be patient with sb of sth 在某事上对某人很耐心
4. be proud of = take pride in + n / doing 对 ….. 感到骄傲
5. It ‘s time (for sb) to do sth / It’s time for sth 是(某人)该做某事的时候了
1. be allowed to do sth 被允许做某事 allow sb to do sth 允许某人做某事 allow to do sth
2. (1) instead of + n /pre / ving
She prefers milk instead of (=rather than) coffee. We’d like to go
sightseeing instead of staying at home.
(2) instead 相反的、代替。常放句末。 I don’t like swimming ， I like playing games
3. So do we 我也是
So + 助、 be 、情态动词 + 主语 “ 某人也一样 ” I have to do my homework . So does he .
Nor /neither 助、 be 、情态动词 + 主语 “ 某人也不 ” Mary didn’t go to the party last
night . Neither /nor did I .
4. I’m not allowed to get my ears pierced.
Get sth done / have sth done 这事儿不是主语做的，而是找别人做的。
My bike broke down ， I’ll have it repaired. 我的自行车坏了，我得找人修理。
5. be strict with sb 对某人严格 be strict in sth 在某方面很严格
6. be comfortable to do sth 做某事很方便
7. be good for 对 ….. 有好处。 Vegetable and fruit are good for your health.
be good at = do well in + n / pre / doing 擅长 …. He is good at swimming
be good to = be friendly to 对 ….. 很友善。
8. have an opportunity to do sth 有机会做某事。
(1) some / any 均为 “ 一些 ” ， + 可、不可数名词; some 一般用于肯定， any 多用于否定或疑问句。
但在疑问句中，当表示说话人希望得到肯定回答或表达请求、建议时应用 some. ---Would you like some coffee ? ---Yes ，
please. / No ， thanks
(2)many / much many + 可数名词 much + 不可数名词 都可与 so ， too ， as ， how 搭配。
(1) either / neither either 指两者其一 neither 指两者都不
either…..or….. 不是 … 就是 …. neither…..nor….. 既不 … 也不 ……
10. other ， the other ， others ， the others ， another
1) other 别的、其他的 2) the other 两者中另一个 one …….. ， the other…….. 一个 … 另一个 …… 3)
others 泛指别的人或物 =other + 复数名词 some …… ， others….. 一些 ….. 另一些 ….. 4) the others
特指其余剩下的人或物 some….. ， the others…… 一些 ….. ，其余的 ……
5) another 任何一个， 另一个。(指三者以上中的任何一个)
11. get in the way of ……. 妨碍 …..
12. On….team . 在 … 队里 He is on the school soccer team.
13. happen 出乎意料的发生 take place 有计划的发生 两者都没有被动语态 this accident has taken
place for 5 years.
14. be serious about + n/ pre / doing 对 …. 很认真
15. succeed (in) doing sth 成功地做某事 success n. successful adj
1. 数词 +hundred/thousand/million/billion 几百 / 千 / 百万 / 十亿
hundreds/thousands/millions/billions+ of 成百的 / 千的 / 百万的 / 十亿的
2.辨析 bring / take / fetch / carry
3. If I were you ， I’d wear a shirt and tie. If I had a million dollars ，
I’d buy a big house.
If 的用法： 1 )在含有非真实条件句的复合句中，表示一种假设，需用虚拟语气，对现在情况的假设，条件从句中用一般过去时( be 动词勇 were
)，主句用 would/should/could + V 原 If they were here ， they would help you.
2 )如果假设情况可能发生，句子用陈述语气，条件从句用一般现在时，主句用将来时。 If he comes ， I’ll bring him a
present. If it rains tomorrow ， we won’t have a picnic.
4. invite sb to somewhere. invite sb to do sth
5. 辨析 borrow / lend / keep
borrow …from…. (主语)借进 I borrowed books from school library.
lend…..to ….. (主语)借出 Could you lend your dictionary to me?
keep 借并保存一段时间(常用于完成时 for ， since 与搭配，代替 borrow )
I’ve kept this story book for a month ， and I didn’t return it .
6. 许多。 (1) a lot of ， lots of ， some ， plenty of 既可修饰可数，也可修饰不可数名词。 (2) a
number of + 可数名词复数 +V 复 “ 大量的 ” A number of trees are cut down. (3) the number
of + 可数名词复数 +V 三单 “.. 的数量 ” The number of students in our class is 52.
(4) amount of ， much ， a little ， little ， a bit of ， a deal of + 不可数名词 + V
三单 (5) many ， a few ， few + 可数名词复数 +V 复
7. (rather) than 其后动词的形式，与前面动词的形式保持一致。
I like singing than dancing. 宁愿做 … 而不愿做 …..
1 ) would rather do sth than do sth. 2 ) would like to do sth ， than do sth
3 ) prefer to do sth rather than do sth 4 ) prefer doing to doing
8. 害怕做某事 be afraid of doing sth = be terrified of doing sth = be scared of
doing sth be afraid to do sth
9. win 赢得比赛、致词、地位、荣誉 beat 击败某人、某队
10.辨别 noise 噪音 Don’t make any noise ! voice 人的嗓音 He has a good voice. sound
泛指各种声音 The sound of car is too loud.
11. taste v. 品尝，尝起来 n. 味道，品味 系动词 taste ， smell ， look ， sound ， feel +
12. 语法。 Give sb sth = give sth to sb 这种结构的动词还有：(加 to 的) give ， show ， send
， bring ， pass ， lend ， tell
(加 for 的) make ， buy ， do ， have ， cook ， find ， sing
Eg: I bought a gift for her. = I bought her a gift She lent me a book = She
lent a book to me.
1. --Whose book is this? --It must /might / can’t /could be sb’s belong to
2. It’s +adj + that …. It’s necessary /clear/important ……that….
It’s+adj+ to do sth it’s important/ necessary to work hard.
find/ think + it +adj + to do sth. I found it difficult to remember English
3. 对 … 感到担心。 be anxious/worried about… worry about
渴望做某事 be anxious to do sth
4. He could be running for exercise.
情态动词 +be +doing sth (表示猜测可能正在做某事)
5. sth happen to sb 某人碰巧遇到某事 When he walked across the road ， the car
accident happened to him.
6. 太 …. much too + adj
太多 ….too much + 不可数 n too many + 可数 n
1. prefer sth to sth I prefer fish to meat.
prefer to do sth ， rather than do sth. = would rather do sth than do sth
They prefer to stay at home rather than go out.
prefer doing to doing Jim prefers reading to playing games.
2. play + 运动、棋类、消遣 play
play+ the + 乐器 play the guitar/violin/piano/trumpet/drums
3. go+ 运动 ing : go shopping/ fishing / sightseeing/ cooking
4. aloud loud loudly
aloud 指读书 read aloud. loud ， loudly 可互换，但 loud 可作 adj ， loudly 却不能。
5.使 …. 想起 …. 提醒(某人) remind sb
remind sb of sth The photos reminded me of my school days.
remind sb to do sth Can you remind me to wake him up at 6:25.
6. though / although 和 but 不能连用
My grandfather is 100 years old ， but he is very health.= Though my
grandfather is 100 years old ， he is very health.
because 和 so 也不能连用
7. famous = well-known
be famous for Martin is famous for writing story.
be famous as She is famous as a scientist.
be famous to The Great Wall is famous to the world.
8. a few+ 可数名词 (表肯定)一些 a little+ 不可数名词 (表肯定)一些
few (表否定) 几乎没有 little (表否定) 几乎没有
9. because + 句子 because of + 名词、代词、动名词短语
He stopped playing soccer because he had a headache. He stopped playing
soccer because of his headache.
10. expect to do sth = hope to do sth = wish to do sth.
11. have a great time = have fun = enjoy oneself.
1. 辨析 relaxed / relaxing tired / tiring fascinated / fascinating
excited / exciting frustrated / frustrating disappointed /disappointing
surprised /surprising amazed / amazing interested / interesting
(加 ed 的修饰人 “ 感到。。。的 ” ;加 ing 的修饰物 “ 令人。。。的 ” )
eg: She was surprised to read this surprising news.
相关短语： be excited at be disappointed at be surprised at / to do sth
be interested in = taka an interest in + n / Ving
2. 旅行。 trek 徒步跋涉 trek trough the jungle/forest/mountain
travel 泛指旅行 travel around the world.
trip 短途旅行 have a trip. Trip to Chengdu .
3. 想要、愿意做某事 would like to do sth = want to do sth.
---Where would you like to go ? ---I’d like to visit somewhere warm.
4. 辨析 cross through over past
(1) cross 从表面上通过 walk cross the street/ bridge/ river….
(2) through 从空间通过 go through the forest/ jungle/ crowed…
(3) over 从上方跨过 jump over the wall
(4) past 从旁边经过 He walked past the window when we were having class.
5. hope / wish (1) hope to do sth hope + 从句
(2) wish to do sth wish sb to do sth wish + 从句
6. I’d like to go somewhere relaxing.
7. Why not + V 原 …..? = Why don’t you + V 原 ….? Let’s + V 原
8. consider 考虑、认为 consider doing sth / +how -
(what) +to do sth / + 名词、从句
eg: We’re considering visiting Paris for holiday.
He has never considered how to solve the problem.
All of you should consider the feeling of the people.
Do you consider (认为) that we can finish the project on time?
9. one of + adj 级 + 复数名词 + V 三单 One of the highest sights in Paris is
10. 辨析 include / including
Our school includes two parts: Primary and Middle School.
I like all sports including playing soccer.
11. traveling around Paris by taxi can cost a lot of money.
traveling around Paris by taxi 动名词做主语 + V 三单
one of the cheapest ways to visit Paris is taking the underground
12.辨析 cost spend pay take
Sth costs(cost)…… The TV cost me 500 dollars
Sb spend (spent) ….. on sth /doing sth I spent 500 dollars on the TV.
I spent 500 dollars buying the TV.
Sb pay (paid) …. For… I paid 500 dollars for the TV.
It takes (took) sb ….. to do sth. It took me 500 dollars to buy the TV.
13. unless = if not 条件状语从句，由 if ， unless 引导。 (主将从现， 主过从过)
If it doesn’t rain ， we’ll go fishing. Unless you see a doctor ， you
shouldn’t take the medicine.
14. 提供。 (1)provide sb with sth = provide sth for sb.
He tried to find a job to provide his family with food.
He tried to find a job to provide food for his family.
(2) offer sb sth = offer sth to sb. She offered money to the poor
offer to do sth 自愿做某事
15. mind ， finish ， keep ， be busy ， feel like ， practice ， have fun ，
have trouble/problem/difficult/ a hard time ， permit ， spend ， be worth ，
keep on ， keep ， be used to ， continue ， give up ， put off ， end up ， pay
attention to ， look forward to ， consider ， suggest ， can’t help ， miss + doing
sth feel ， hear ， see ， find ， watch ， notice sb do sth (做过) doing sth (正在做)
16.辨析 stop to do / stop doing remember to do / remember doing
forget to do / forget doing try to do / try doing
go on to do / go on doing allow to do / allow doing
17. 在介词后( in ， at ， after ， on ， to ， for ， of ， by ， against ， with ，
without ， after ， before ， )如果要用动词，只能用 ving I study for a test by working with
18. enough 的用法
adj / adv + enough 足够。。。样 enough + n 足够的。。。
19.语法：主谓一致。 1 ) 当 and 或 both …and… 连接两个或三个名词作主语，谓语动词用复数。 & nbsp; Both
you and I are good friends.
2. )不定代词作主语 +V 三单 (either ， neither ， each ， the other ， another ，
any/every/no/some 引导的不定代词 ) Everyone is going to beach tomorrow.
3. ) 由 each ， every 引导的作主语，指同一个人时， +V 三单 Each boy and girl was given a
4. ) 主语后有 with ， along with ， together with ， as well as ， more than ，
including ， besides ， like ， except ， but. 谓语动词由前面的主语决定 .
Mr Li with his wife and children is coming next week. Tom besides his
friends plays volleyball every afternoon.
5)either…or…. neither…nor… not only…but also…
Not only my parents but also I am looking forward to meeting my uncle.
Either you or he is right.
6)there be 句型的 be 动词由靠近它的主语决定，即就近原则。 There is a table and many desks in the
7)one of + 复数名词 + V 三单 one of the women is from America.
20. dream of doing sth
achieve/ come true I believe I will achieve my dream one day.= I believe my
dream will come true one day.
21. receive / accept
I’ve received her invitation to the party ， but I didn’t accept it ，
because I’m busy.
22. 辨析 so that so….. that…. such…. That…
1) so that = in order that he works hard so that he can make more
2) such 修饰强调名词。 such + a/an + adj + n +that 从句 Mary is such a young girl
that she can’t go to school.
such + adj+ 不可数名词、复数名词 + that 从句
3)so 修饰强调 adj 或 adv. so + adj / adv + that 从句 He is so clever that he can
work out all the problems.
4 ) 当名词由 many ， much ， few ， little 修饰时，只能用 so
so many/ few+ 可数名词复数 +that 从句 so much/ little+ 不可数名词 +that 从句 There are so
much time that I can play with friends.
5) too…to… = not… enough to …. = so….. that….
23. 短语 be willing to do sth be similar to it seems that… seem to do sth
hold on to.. according to
24. 定语从句 (详见 Unit 6-7 ) 1 ) 一般情况下， that 可指人，也可指物，可代替 who ， whom ， which;
但不能和介词搭配。 Which 指物 who ， whom ， whose 指人 where 指某地 when 指某时
A doctor is a person who looks after people’ health.
I like the places where people are friendly.
2 ) 掌握 that 的几种特殊用法(详见书上) 3 ) 掌握 whom ， which 与介词的用法