初三英语复习期末复习资料

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2021-03-15

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初三英语复习期末复习资料插图

初三英语复习期末复习资料

【考点直击】

1.动词的八种时态的构成及用法;

2.动词被动语态的构成及用法;

3.非谓语动词的构成及用法;

4.近义动词的用法区别。

【名师点睛】

1.动词的时态

英语时态用共有十六种时态,其中常用的有8种,它们是:一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时、现在进行时、现在完成时、过去进行时、过去完成时和过去将来时。

(1)一般现在时的基本用法

1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间状语连用。

时间状语: every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday

I leave home for school at 7 every morning.

2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。

The earth moves around the sun.

Shanghai lies in the east of China.

3) 表示格言或警句中。

Pride goes before a fall.

【注意】此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。

例:Columbus proved that the earth is round..

4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。

I don't want so much.

5) 某些动词如 come, go, move, stop, leave, arrive, be, finish, continue, start
等,在一般现在时句中可用来表示将来肯定会发生的动作。

The train comes at 3 o'clock.

6) 在时间状语从句或条件状语从句中,一般现在时代替一般将来时。

I'll help you as soon as you have problem.

Tell Xiao Li about it if you meet him.

(2)一般过去时的用法:

表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内所发生的动作或情况,通常一般过去式带有表示动作时间状语的词,词组或从句,如 yesterday, the day
before last, last week, two days ago 等,上下文清楚时可以不带时间状语。

I worked in that factory last year.

【注意】

1) 过去经常反复发生的动作,也可用used to或would加动词原形来表达,例如:

I used to go fishing on Sundays.

2) “used to”也可用于表示过去曾经存在过的状态。例如:

This river used to be clean.

(3)一般将来时的用法

1)表示将来的动作或状态。例如:

I shall attend the meeting tomorrow.

2)表示将来反复发生的动作或存在的状态。例如:

He will go to see his mother every Saturdays.

3)表示将来的意愿,决心,许诺, 命令等时常用will,征求对方意见,主语是第一人称时,常用shall。

I will do my best to catch up with them.

Shall I open the door?

4)be + going + 动词不定式。也是一种将来时句型,表示打算,计划,最近

或将来要作的某事。

I am going to Beijing next week.

5)be + 动词不定式。表示有职责,义务,可能,约定,意图等。

There is to be a meeting this afternoon.

We are to meet the guests at the station.

6)be about + 动词不定式,表示马上,很快作某事。

They are about to leave.

(4)现在进行时的用法

1) 现在进行时的用法表示说话者说话时正在发生或者进行的动作, 它注重

现在正在进行的动作,而不管动作从什么时间开始,到什么时间结束。

What are you doing now?

I am looking for my key.

2) 现在进行时表示目前一段时间内正在进行的动作(但说话时这个动作不一定在进行)。

The students are preparing for the examination.

3) 某些动词的现在进行时可以表示即将发生的动作,这些动词有 arrive, come, leave, start等。

They are going to Hong Kong tomorrow.

【注意】有些动词一般不可以用于进行时态

①表示状态的动词,尤其是静态动词,如:be, have

②表示认识、知觉和情感的动词,如:know, think, hear, find, see, like, want, wish,
prefer等。

(5)现在完成时的用法

1) 现在完成时表示在说话之前已经完成或刚完成的动作。

I have bought a ten-speed bicycle.

They have cleaned the classroom.

2) 现在完成时表示动作从过去开始持续到现在,或者还有可能持续下去的动作或状态。 现在完成时常与for 和 since 引导的短语或从句连用。

We have lived here since 1976.

They have waited for more than two hours.

【注意】

一般过去时与现在完成时的区别

过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响;一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用。

试比较:

I saw this film yesterday.(强调看的动作发生过了,不涉及现在)

I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了。)

(6)过去进行时的用法

表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。例如:

I was watching TV when she came to see me.

【注意】

过去进行时和一般过去时都是过去发生的事情,但过去进行时侧重表示过去某一时刻正在进行的动作或所处的状态,强调动作的连续进行,而一般过去时则表示单纯的过去事实,例如:

They were building a house last month. (上个月正在建造,建造好与否不知)

They built a new house last month. (上个月建造好了,动作已经完成)

(7)过去完成时的用法

过去完成时表示过去某一时刻或某一动作之前完成的动作或所处的状态,过去完成时常和 by , before 等词组成的短语和从句连用。

We had already learned two thousands words by the end of last year.

When we arrived at the station, they had waited for more than twenty
minutes.

(8)过去将来时的用法

过去将来时表示从过去某个时间看将要发生的动作或存在地状态,过去将来时较多地被运用在宾语从句中。例如:

They were going to have a meeting.

I told him that I would see him off at the station.

2.动词的语态

语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。

主语是动作的发出者为主动语态;主语是动作的接受者为被动语态。

(1)被动语态

1) 被动语态最基本的句型结构是: be +及物动词过去分词

2) 被动语态中的谓语动词一定要是及物动词

因为被动句中的主语是动作的承受者,某些短语动词如look after, think of, take care of, work out, laugh
at等,也可用于被动语态。

The children were taken good care of by her.

【注意】

短语动词中的介词或副词变成被动语态时不可遗漏。

3) 主动语态变为被动语态要加“to”的情况

若宾语补足语是不带to 的不定式,变为被动语态时,该不定式前要加"to"。此类动词为感官动词,如:feel, hear, help, listen
to, look at, make, observe, see, notice, watch等。例如:

The teacher made me go out of the classroom.

I was made to go out of the classroom (by the teacher).

4) 主动形式表示被动意义

如wash, clean, look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write,
sell等动词虽然用做主动形式却表示被动的意义。例如:

The food tastes good.

3.非谓语动词

对非谓语动词的考点是:感官动词后不定式作宾语补足语和动词ing形式作宾语补足语的用法;一些特殊动词的动词不定式作宾语补足语时不带to,但变为被动语态时就要带to;有些动词既可接不定式也可接动词ing形式作宾语,但表达的意思不同。这些都是历年中考的重点。

(1)非谓语动词的形式

非谓语动词指的是在句中起名词,形容词或副词作用的动词形式,而不是作谓语的动词形式。 动词的非谓语形式分为动名词,分词,动词不定式。

(2)不定式作宾语补足语

Father will not allow us to play on the street.

(3)不定式作目的状语

He ran so fast as to catch the first bus.

(4)用不定式和分词作补足语都可以的动词

这样的动词有感官动词如:see, hear, look, notice, observe, feel等,使役动词如:have, make,
leave, keep, get等。接不定式表示动作的完整性,真实性;+doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性。

I saw him work in the garden yesterday.

昨天我看见他在花园里干活了。(强调"我看见了"这个事实)

I saw him working in the garden yesterday.(强调"我见他正干活"这个动作)

昨天我见他正在花园里干活。

(5)用不带to不定式的情况

使役动词如: let, have, make等和感官动词如: see, watch, hear, listen to, smell, feel,
find 等后作宾补,省略to。在被动语态中则to不能省掉。

(6)接动名词与不定式意义不同

1) stop to do 停止,中断做某事后去做另一件事。

stop doing 停止做某事。

2) forget to do 忘记要去做某事。 (未做)

forget doing 忘记做过某事。  (已做)

3) remember to do 记得去做某事     (未做)

remember doing 记得做过某事    (已做)

4) try to do  努力,企图做某事。

try doing  试验,试着做某事。

5) go on to do 做了一件事后,接着做另一件事。

go on doing  继续做原来做的事。

6) mean to do  打算、想

mean doing 意味着

4. 容易混淆的常用动词的辨析

(1) say, speak, talk, tell的用法。

1) say表示讲话,作为及物动词使用,后跟宾语或宾语从句。

He said he would go there.

It's time to leave. We have to say goodbye to you.

2)speak表示“讲话”,一般作为不及物动词使用,而有时作为及物动词后面跟上各种语言作为宾语。

Do you speak English?

May I speak to Mr Pope, please?

3) talk表示“谈话”,是不及物动词,与to , about, with等连用,才可以接宾语。

What are you talking about?

Mr Jackson is talking with my father in the office now.

4) tell 表示“告诉,讲述”是及物动词,可以带双宾语或复合宾语。

She told us an interesting story yesterday.

My teacher told me that we would have an English exam the next month.

(2) look, see, watch和watch的用法。

1) look强调“看”这个动作,是不及物动词,常与at连用,然后接宾语。

Look! The girl is swimming in the lake.

Look at the picture carefully. Can you find something unusual?

2) see 指“看见”某物,强调的是结果。

They can't see the words on the blackboard.

Does Lily often go to see a film on Sunday?

3) watch 指的是“观看”,“注视”之意。

The twins are watching TV now.

He will go to watch a volleyball match.

4) read指“看书”、“看报”、“阅读”之意。

Don't read in the sun.

I like to read newspapers when I am free.

(3) borrow, lend和keep的区别。

1) borrow意思为“借入”,常常与from连用,是非延续性动词,表示瞬间即能完成的动作。

Meimei borrowed a book from the library just now.

May I borrow your dictionary?

2) lend 是“借出”之意,常常与to连用,同borrow一样,是非延续性动词,只表示瞬间即能完成的动作。

Uncle Wany has lent his car to Mr Li.

Could you lend us your radio, please?

3) keep是“保存”的意思,动作可以延续。

How long can the recorder be kept?

The farmer kept the pat for two weeks.

(4) bring, take, carry 和get的用法。

1) bring意思为“拿来”、“带来”。指将某物或某人从别处“带来”。

Bring me the book, please.

May I bring Jim to see you next Saturday?

2) take意思是“拿走”,“带走”,把某物或某人从这里“带来”或“拿到”某处之意。

It looks like rain. Take a raincoat with you.

Mother took the little girl to the next room.

3) carry 是“带着、搬运、携带”的意思,指随身携带,有背着、扛着、抱着、提着的含义,不表明来去的方向。

Do you always carry a handbag?

The box is heavy. Can you carry it?

4) get是去某处将某物拿回来。

Please go to my office to get some chalk.

There is no water in the bottle. Why not get some?

(5) wear, put on和dress的区别

1) wear是“穿着”“戴着”的意思,可以用于穿衣服、穿鞋、戴帽子、戴手套、佩戴首饰等,强调“穿着”的状态。

Tom always wears black shoes.

He wears a raincoat even when it is fine.

She doesn't like to wear a red flowers in her hair.

2) put on是“穿上”“戴上”的意思,可以用于穿衣服、穿鞋、戴帽等。着重于穿戴的动作。

It's cold. You'd better put on your coat.

He put on his hat and went out of the room.

3)
dress可以作及物动词和不及物动词,有“穿着”“打扮”的意思。作“穿着”解时,只用于穿衣服,不用于穿鞋、戴帽、戴手套。作为及物动词用时,它的宾语是人,不是衣服。dress
sb. (给某人穿衣服),而wear作“穿着”用时,也是及物动词,但它的宾语是物,不是人,即wear sth.(穿着衣物)。

She always dresses well.

Get up and dress quickly.

Mary is dressing her child.

(6) take, spend 和use的用法。

1) take指做某事用多少时间,句型是:It takes/took/ will take + sb. +some time + to do
sth.

It took me three days to finish the work.

It will take you a while week to travel thought the forest.

It takes only one hour to fly to Shanghai.

2) spend指某人在某事(物)上花费时间或钱。句型是:

Someone spends + money/time + on something(in) doing sth.

She spent more than 500 yuan on that coat.

He didn't spend much time on his lessons.

He spent much time (in) correcting students' exercises.

Mother spent her evenings (in) washing clothes.

3) use表示使用工具、手段等。

Do you know how to use the computer?

Shall we use your car?

(7)reach, get 和arrive的区别。

1) reach是及物动词,后面要直接跟表示地点的名词作宾语。

After the train had left, they reached the station

We reached the top of the mountain at last.

2) get是不及动词,常与to连用,再接名词,后面接表示地点的副词时,不用to,get to常用于口语中。

When the students got to the cinema, the film had begun.

My sister was cooking when mother got home.

3) arrive是不及物动词,表示到达一个小地方时,用arrive at, 到达一个大地方时用arrive in。

The soldiers arrived at a small village

The foreigners will arrive in Shanghai tomorrow.